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 Displaying page 1 of 20, items 1 to 25 of 476.

Session: Material Handling Concepts
(Material Handling;Transportation & Logistics)
8 am -

Chairs: Tony Nath - Nucor Steel Gallatin, Doug Niksch - Mi-Jack Products Inc., Bruce Zimmerman - Nucor Steel–Indiana

Discharge Time of Binary Particle Mixtures Flowing Out of a Wedge-shaped Hopper


Jian Xu, Chongqing University; Zhaowen Hu, Chongqing University

A series of experiments has been carried out of filling and discharge of non-cohesive granular materials from a wedge-shaped hopper under gravity. The spherical particles flow process after discharged from the wedge-shaped hopper made of plexiglass is recorded by a high-speed camera system. The effects of the fraction of smaller particles in the binary mixtures and the outlet sizes on the discharge time are investigated. The results show that under the same conditions, the discharge time of the particles with the diameter of 3mm is about 1.4 times longer than that with the diameter of 6mm. Moreover, the discharge time of the binary particle mixtures presents a nonlinear law with the increasing volume fraction of 3mm particles, and the relationships are depicted by both quadratic and exponential functions. In addition, when the outlet size changes from 20×50mm2 to 20×30mm2, the corresponding discharge time approximately increases by 0.7 times.

Indoor Tracking of Mobile Vehicles In The Metals Industry


Edgardo LaBruna, Janus Automation

Radio based distance and position sensors for outdoor and indoor applications have been widely adopted in the steel making industry due to the fact, that harsh conditions like dust, heat or vibration do not influence the signal quality. Many plants are looking for ways to track when haulers or locomotives enter an indoor area, or when those vehicles are in close proximity to buildings where GPS technology doesn’t work properly. The possibility of knowing the position of those vehicles comes with implementation of tracking, positioning and anti-collision systems. This paper presents several applications using Local Positioning Radar (LPR) technology to provide a reliable solution in this area.

16 May 2016

Session: EAF Environmental Control
9:30 am - 12 pm (RM 402)

Chairs: Bob Albert - SNC-Lavalin America Inc.

Characterization and Evaluation of Carbothermic Reduction via EAF Dust Thermogravimetric Test

10 am

Felipe Buboltz, LaSid - UFRGS

The Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD) has harmful metals to the environment and its made, mainly, by elements iron, zinc and oxygen. Due to increasing costs for disposal, industry look for ways of recycling it. One of the alternatives is by reintroducing the waste in electric melt shop using self-reducing agglomerates as part of the furnace burden. In this study, self-reducing mixtures are prepared with EAF Dust and petroleum coke, presenting chemical and physical characterizations. An evaluation about these mixtures’ behavior is carried out in thermobalance, regarding the possibility of use by the technique in measuring accurate coke content.

Advanced Automation Solutions for Steelmaking and Environmental Plants (Confirmed)

10:30 am

Thomas Kurzmann, Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH; Franz Hartl, Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH; Andreas Rohrhofer, Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH; Phillip Aufreiter, Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH

Environmental plants have become a main part of steelmaking plants. Highest performance in combination with optimized energy consumption is the main target in Primetals Technologies’ innovations in automation optimization packages for dedusting systems. For primary-dry type dedusting systems, energy savings up to 60% could be reached with Precon, an energy optimization system. With optimization packages for bag filter systems, operational costs were reduced and at the same time the lifetime of the filter is increased. A new approach for preventive maintenance and operator assistance is introduced with the Acoustic Expert System. It enables a wide field of application for process observation by acoustic monitoring of the specific noise of various equipment.

Latest Trends in EAF Optimization of Scrap-Based Melting Process: Balancing Chemical and Electrical Energy Input for Competitive and Sustainable Steelmaking (Confirmed)

11 am

Damiano Patrizio, Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A.; Alberto Pesamosca, Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.p.A.

This paper analyzes the latest results achieved in scrap-based EAFs in terms of application of chemical energy, starting from the observation that the general trend is a reduction of oxygen utilization. If the maximization of productivity is to remain one of the major goals, then some aspects of the present market situation, including the price of raw materials, are required to maximize process yield. Based on performance figures of selected plants and theoretical considerations, the effect of chemical energy input intensity is analyzed, focusing on transformation cost, productivity and total energy input. The effect of present practices with lower oxygen utilization is considered also in terms of global CO2 emissions. Finally, Danieli's latest concepts and technological tools for optimization of chemical input are presented.

Session: Coke Quality: Forecasting & Optimization
9:30 am - 12 pm (RM 403)

Chairs: Jack Burnside - AKJ Industries Inc., Sam Sheyn - AK Steel Corp. – Middletown Works, Shiju Thomas - U. S. Steel Research and Technology Center

Insights on Coke Quality Variation Between Heat Recovery and Byproduct Cokemaking Technology (Confirmed)

9:30 am

Mhlwazi Solomon Nyathi, ArcelorMittal USA; Richard Kruse, ArcelorMittal USA; Maria Mastalerz, Indiana University

Coke structural properties influencing coke quality in byproduct and heat-recovery cokemaking, hence accounting for quality differences between these technologies, are investigated. Compared to slot-oven coke, heat-recovery oven coke is less homogenous in quality, as expressed by CSR, pore and carbon structure. The presence of free space above the heat-recovery oven bed promotes swelling of the charge, leading to increased coke surface area toward the top of the bed. While both porous and carbon structure influence quality, pore structure has a stronger influence on CSR in the heat-recovery oven than in the slot-oven, particularly coke at the top section of the heat-recovery oven.

Porosity of Metallurgical Coke (Confirmed)

10 am

Richard Pearson, Pearson Coal Petrography Inc.; David Pearson, Pearson Coal Petrography Inc.; Yuekan Jiao, Pearson Coal Petrography Inc.; Jackie Park, Pearson Coal Petrography Inc.

Porosity has been measured on a suite of selected drill cores from single cokes prepared in non-recovery and slot ovens. The cokes were selected because they have no aberrant ash chemistry. The size of the porosity dictated the techniques used: He-pycnometry and Petrographic Image Analysis (PIA). The cores were subsequently reacted in a CRI test. The objective was to replicate the familiar van der Velden CSR-CRI relationship, with the addition of porosity data. CSR can then be inferred from porosity data alone, and the observed spatial variation explained by geographical location in the oven. The mean pore size, pore size distribution and pore density are determined statistically and are measured by PIA.

Forecasting Coke Quality Using a CKIC Automated Sapozhnikov Plastometer (Confirmed)

10:30 am

Jackie Park, Pearson Coal Petrography Inc.; David Pearson, Pearson Coal Petrography Inc.; Richard Pearson, Pearson Coal Petrography Inc.; Yuekan Jiao, Pearson Coal Petrography Inc.

Power measurements have been made during plastic layer advance on more than 150 semi-cokes prepared by automated CKIC Sapozhnikov plastometer. Vitrinite-rich coals generate over 16 mW during testing, whereas coals with less vitrinite generate less than 2.5 mW power. The amount of work (W = FxD) done to develop these different responses is a function of vitrinite content, the ingredient in coal that melts, whereas variation in growth time during which the plastic layer pushes upward is a temperature melting-range function of rank. Power generation (P = W/T) at the plastic layer is a matrix of these two variables and is different from coal to coal. Semi-cokes that develop in a low-power environment of 2.5 mW or less produce cokes that have the highest CSRs, >70. Blends generate 1.5–5 mW over a Romax rank range of 1.15–1.25%, with higher CSRs generating less power.

Optimization of Coke Quality for Efficient BF Operations (Confirmed)

11 am

Hemant Upadhyay, Jindal Steel & Power Ltd.; Arvind Kr. Bhagat, Jindal Steel & Power Ltd.

In order to maintain stable operation in a blast furnace (BF) with higher productivity levels, blast enrichment and auxiliary fuel rates, it is important to have lowest possible degradation of coke during its travel from top to bottom of the furnace. This in turn demands proper understanding of the conditions coke has to face in the BF (i.e., effect of alkali, lime, other oxides, char/dust and reactions with surrounding gases) and mechanisms of fines generation and consumption in the blast furnace. In this work, a study on the role of coke and its functions in traditional as well as modern BF operation has been made, and mechanisms inducing and affecting coke degradation have been investigated and correlated with the actual experience from one of the best blast furnaces operating. Various efforts and improvements made toward optimization of coke quality at JSPL Raigarh are also discussed.

Process Adopted to Use Pilot Coke Oven for Maintaining Desired CSR and CRI of Blast Furnace Coke (Confirmed)

11:30 am

Sandeep Mishra, Jindal Steel & Power Ltd.

JSPL Raigarh has btoh non-recovery and heat recovery cokemaking technology with 176 ovens (two blocks of eight batteries each) with 11 ovens in each battery. The plant also has a prototype pilot coke oven to take various trials of coking coal blend to produce the most economical and desired quality of BF grade coke. This paper deals with the attempt made in setting up a correlation between the coke of the pilot oven and the main coke oven at JSPL Raigarh. The pilot oven was used to examine possibilities of introducing new varieties of hard, semi-hard and soft coking coals available which are cost-effective, and also to determine a coking coal blend for coke ovens looking at hot strength requirement from customers of blast furnace 1 and blast furnace 2.

Session: BF Modeling
9:30 am - 12 pm (RM 404)

Chairs: Tom Colander - Magneco/Metrel Inc., Mike Riley - Praxair Inc.

Development of a Simplified Ensemble Model for PCI Coal Selection (Confirmed)

9:30 am

Stuart Street, AK Steel Corp.; Jonathon Burgo, AK Steel Corp.

Although pulverized coal injection (PCI) increases operational complexity, its use has become widely adopted where it offers a financial benefit. Because there is no single standard specifying coal requirements for pulverized coal, each operation needs to determine its own selection criteria. One key parameter for PCI coal selection is the coke replacement ratio. Ideally the coke replacement ratio should be determined via industrial trials. However, there are issues with such industrial trials, namely the length of the trials required to achieve statistical significance and also the cost. One strategy to avoid the impact of industrial trials is to evaluate the coke replacement ratio by modeling. This paper reviews some of the known published models for calculating coke replacement ratio and details the development within AK Steel of a simplified ensemble model for calculating the coke replacement ratio for PCI coal.

Verification and Review of Rist-Diagram for the Practical Heat- and Mass-Balance Calculation in a Modern Blast Furnace (Confirmed)

10 am

Youjong Kwon, POSCO E&C; Jung-Seo Park, POSCO E&C

The Rist-diagram was developed several decades ago and was a powerful tool to understand blast furnace (BF) operation. However, the calculation results cannot be easily applied in BF engineering, since the calculation has some extent of uncertainty due to the changes in BF operation over several decades. This article reviews the assumptions in calculation, compares the calculation results with various BF operation data, and clarifies the uncertainty. The review and comparison items are: the assumptions of the Rist-diagram (heat loss, mass loss etc.); the calculated results from the Rist-diagram (coke ratio, blast volume); and the application of heat and mass balance (BF gas amount, surface moisture of raw material). The results may be used for the improvement of the Rist-diagram, and practical heat- and mass-balance calculation in modern BFs.

Influence of Slag Properties on the Alkali Cycle of a Blast Furnace (Confirmed)

10:30 am

Anton Pichler, Montanuniversitaet Leoben; Johannes Schenk, Montanuniversitaet Leoben; Franz Hauzenberger, Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH; Hugo Stocker, Vometals Technologies Austria GmbH; Christoph Thaler, Voestalpine Stahl GmbH

Slag properties like temperature and basicity are generally known as influencing parameters for the evaporation of potassium and sodium in the blast furnace hearth. Due to their harmful effect on refractories, coke, burden material and top gas, the operator wants to decrease the generation of gaseous alkali compounds by the slag phase. To predict the influence of temperature and slag composition on the alkali mass flows, a thermochemical model was developed. This multi-zone model enables a determination of the alkali concentration over the blast furnace height and gives an understanding of the most effective parameters on the alkali cycle.

Investigation of Alternative Reducing Agent Conversion in the Raceway Cavity of Blast Furnaces by Numerical Simulation (Confirmed)

11 am

Michael Harasek, Vienna University of Technology; Christian Maier, Vienna University of Technology; Christian Jordan, Vienna University of Technology; Christoph Feilmayr, voestalpine Stahl GmbH

In order to evaluate the use of alternative reducing agents in blast furnaces, a CFD model with the functionality to describe the processes in the vicinity of the tuyere opening was developed. The conversion behavior of various types of injectants — including processed waste plastics, liquid hydrocarbons, pulverized coal and natural gas — is addressed, also considering the thermochemical conversion of metallurgical coke by oxidation and gasification reactions. The thoroughly validated multiphase modeling tool is applied to various sets of blast furnace operating parameters (e.g., type of reducing agents, injection rates) as well as geometric setups. The results contribute to a better understanding of the processes, supporting the efforts to further decrease emissions and consumption of primary resources.

Simulation of Hot Metal Temperature Variation During Tapping of Blast Furnace (Confirmed)

11:30 am

Hemant Upadhyay, Jindal Steel & Power Ltd.; Tarun Kumar Kundu, Indian Institute of Technology

To predict hot metal temperature variation during the tapping process is extremely useful, since it gives a clear picture about the tapping operation. At the same time, it allows correction of process parameters in case of any major deviation. Hence, in order to obtain desired hot metal temperature with optimum heat input and heat loss and to tune the other parameters accordingly, it is required to have a clear understanding of temperature distribution across the liquid pool in the hearth and variation in tapping temperatures. In this study, a mathematical model is prepared based on the heat transfer between metal and slag, metal and solids, slag and solids, as well as among the various zones of metal and slag itself. The effects of heat supply from the dripping zone and heat loss to the cooling system have been considered, and the temperature counters are prepared to obtain a trend of temperature variation of metal and slag during tapping.

Session: BF Equipment
9:30 am - 12 pm (RM 405)

Chairs: Hugh Crosmun - Carmeuse Lime & Stone Inc., Ray Young - AK Steel Corp. – Middletown Works

Blast Furnace Cooling Stave Design (Confirmed)

9:30 am

Paul Balmer, Primetals Technologies Ltd.; Martin Smith, Primetals Technologies Ltd.; Jeremy Fletcher, Primetals Technologies Ltd.; Richard Harvey, Primetals Technologies Ltd.; Robert Horwood, Primetals Technologies Ltd.

In recent years, the latest evolution of the cooling system design, in the shape of the copper stave, has been seen as state-of-the-art and an established feature on a large number of furnaces around the world. When first put forward, the copper stave was marketed as the ultimate cooling element, since it not only provided a cooling function but also self-protected by forming an accretion layer. More recently, on some furnaces that have copper staves in their design, significant problems have arisen during operation, causing premature failure of the staves and reduced campaign life. This paper will review the evolution of the copper stave design and illustrate the latest techniques being applied by Primetals in this critical area of blast furnace design.

Advanced Technology Developments for Improving Blast Furnace Stave Life (Confirmed)

10 am

Dustin Vickress, Hatch; David Rudge, Hatch; Maciej Jastrzebski, Hatch; Darryl Metcalfe, Hatch

The premature failure of copper staves in the lower stack and bosh is frequently the reason for an interim blast furnace repair at great cost to the blast furnace owner. Protective accretions may form on the stave hot face, but if these accretions are lost, the staves are exposed to abrasion from the descending burden materials that increases copper wear and results in cooling circuit failures. Such failures dramatically reduce stave life and lead to an early blast furnace repair/reline. New research and technology developments addressing premature stave wear will be presented, complete with results obtained. These developments include a novel stave wear measurement and monitoring technique, as well as significant technology advancements in cooling remediation for extending campaign life.

Worldwide Experience in Operating Hot Blast Systems over 30+ Year Campaigns

10:30 am

Ewout Tesselaar, Danieli Corus BV

Hot Blast Stove Technology has been developed to such an extent that low cost hot metal production for over 30 years without major repairs has become achievable, making the decision for a campaign length between 5 to over 30 years a design choice for the plant owner/operator. Some of the earlier examples of designs capable of such long campaign lengths are currently beyond the 30th or even 40th year of their running campaign. These examples are found especially in Europe and North America. This article presents operational experiences over these exceptionally long campaigns as well as the current condition of these systems. The relevance of several design aspects for achieving such long campaigns is discussed.

The Use of Electrical Technologies in Blast Furnace Ironmaking (Confirmed)

11 am

Ian Cameron, Hatch Ltd.; Manuel Huerta, Hatch Associates Consultants Inc.; Alexander Gorodetsky, Alter NRG Corp.; Nishit Patel, Hatch Ltd.; Mitren Sukhram, Hatch Ltd.

In the 1980s, extensive development work was completed regarding the use of plasma torches in blast furnace ironmaking. Developers planned to use electricity to reduce coke consumption and inject coal into the blast furnace without oxygen enrichment. Plasma technologies were not implemented in part due to plasma torch reliability. Westinghouse has since improved torch reliability with industrial experience in solid-waste-to-energy facilities. Hatch assessed the merits of two blast furnace scenarios: hot blast superheating and plasma tuyere injection with coal. The coke rate savings, coal and oxygen consumptions, carbon footprint and electrical purchase requirements for each scenario will be presented.

USS Gary Works' No. 4 Blast Furnace Top-Charging System Conversion From a Two-Bell Top to a Compact Bell-Less Top® (Confirmed)

11:30 am

Jeff Vandevinit, Paul Wurth Inc.; Dale Baker, U.S. Steel Corporation; Jason Entwistle, U.S. Steel Gary Works; David Berdusco, Paul Wurth Inc.

In 2015, U. S. Steel – Gary Works converted the Two-Bell Top-Charging System to a Compact Bell-Less Top® at its No. 4 blast furnace. The Compact Bell-Less Top was relocated, reconditioned and modified from U. S. Steel – Great Lakes' A-1 blast furnace. The decision to change the top equipment was based on the operational and maintenance benefits recognized at the No. 14 blast furnace at Gary Works and on the longevity of the PW BLT equipment when compared to bell tops.

Session: EAF Raw Materials & DRI
(Electric Steelmaking)
9:30 am - 12 pm (RM 406)

Chairs: Harriet Dutka - Magnesita Refractories, Lauren Jellison - Nucor Steel–Indiana, Francesco Memoli - Tenova Core

Slag Modeling for Optimizing the Use of Fluxes on a DRI-Based Steelmaking Operation (Confirmed)

9:30 am

Francisco López, Magnesita; Alcides Farrando, Magnesita; Luis Maria López, ArcelorMittal; Luis Picco, ArcelorMittal; Mark Loeffelholz, Magnesita S.A.

The use of DRI as metallic charge in any EAF entails countless challenges for steelmakers, one of them being to avoid or minimize refractory wear caused by the oxides contained in the gangue. The best way to address this problem is by predicting through a mass balance model the evolution of slag composition as the heat is processed, in order to define the right amount of MgO and CaO to be fed and the proper opportunity for doing it. The ultimate goal is to have a slag compatible with the EAF refractories and the best foaming properties at the lowest possible cost.

Management of DRI Fines to Maximize Iron Yield in the EAF (Confirmed)

10 am

Ruben Lule Gonzalez, ArcelorMIttal; Francisco Lopez Acosta, SGL Carbon; Michael Lowry, SGL Carbon; David Kundrat, SGL Carbon; Allen Wyatt, SGL Carbon; Hagen Fuchs, SGL Carbon

In an all-DRI-fed EAF, DRI pellet diameter can directly affect yield. Our efforts are focused on minimization of generation of sub-sized pellets in the first place, and then devising a melting practice that best optimizes recycling of the briquetted DRI fines that remain. This paper builds on one from AISTech 2015, where we broaden our efforts to study all factors contributing to sub-sized DRI pellets in the process stream. An important aspect is development of a melting practice for recycling the briquetted fines. This entails a pre-melting step, where the briquettes are charged ahead of the DRI feed stage to make use of the large hot heel in the furnace. In this step, the normally intense slag foaming associated with melting of the DRI is reduced, and there is minimal slagoff, so that as the briquettes disintegrate and melt, they are contained in the furnace, contributing valuable iron units to the heat.

Using SmartFurnace and ZoloScan Laser Offgas Information to Optimize DRI Melting at Nucor Hickman (Confirmed)

10:30 am

Saul Gonzalez, AMIGE; Ismael Valdez, Nucor Steel Arkansas; Kenneth Grieshaber, Zolo Technologies Inc.; Guillermo Fernandez, AMIGE

Nucor Hickman charges up to 60% DRI. The levels of DRI vary according to business conditions which means Hickman must be able to rapidly adjust to changes. High DRI rates means generation of high levels of carbon monoxide, which must be controlled for safety and efficiency reasons. Levels of carbon in the DRI, carbon and oxygen injection and DRI/scrap mix can change heat to heat, causing issues with overheating, steel chemistry and emissions. AMIGE has developed an improved process control system which utilizes the ZoloSCAN laser technology to measure furnace offgas and temperature. Improved control of the melting and chemical energy practice, along with overcoming the unique challenges of a DC furnace are discussed, through the implementation of AMIGE SmartFurnace and ZoloSCAN

Carbon Transfer During Melting of Direct-Reduced Iron (Confirmed)

11 am

Yinig He, Carnegie Mellon University; P. Chris Pistorius, Carnegie Mellon University

Carbon is a desirable element in EAF steelmaking, especially if the carbon can be dissolved in the steel melt. Subsequent oxidation of the carbon produces carbon monoxide gas, which foams the slag (increasing energy efficiency) and strips dissolved nitrogen from the steel. Direct-reduced iron (DRI) can contain several mass percent of carbon. In this study, laboratory-produced DRI pellets with different carbon contents were produced by gaseous reduction and carburizing. The DRI pellets were then injected to a laboratory slag-steel melt. During DRI injection, infrared radiation gas analysis was used to monitor CO content in the offgas, and then the percentage of carbon in DRI transferred to the steel melt was analyzed. Also, automated SEM/EDX was used to examine the carbon content of the steel melt. It was found that carbon transfer to the steel melt can be achieved despite the presence of an oxidizing (FeO-containing) slag, and DRI injection might be an effective approach to reducing the nitrogen content of EAF steel.

Raw Material Flexibility in Electric Steelmaking (Confirmed)

11:30 am

Jan Lueckhoff, Primetals Technologies; Jens Apfel, Primetals Technologies; Joerg Buttler, Primetals Technologies

Due to high fluctuation in price and availability of scrap and its substitutes, modern electric arc furnace have to be highly flexible on their charge mix. Primetals Technologies designs EAFs for hot and cold DRI input up to 100%. With a special tapping design the furnace can be operated continuously with minimum power off time. Existing installations can be revamped to allow DRI or HBI feeding through the 5th hole. Hot metal charging can be done via a launder through the slag door of the EAF A wide range of scrap / hot metal ratios can be used.