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 Displaying page 1 of 10, items 1 to 25 of 227.

Session: Biomass & CO2

Chairs: Bob Albert - SNC - Lavalin America, Inc., Ty Daurity - MikroPul

Advanced Automation Solutions for Steelmaking and Environmental Plants (Confirmed)


Thomas Kurzmann, Primetals Technologies Austrai GmbH; Franz Hartl, Primetals Technologies Austrai GmbH; Andreas Rohrhofer, Primetals Technologies Austrai GmbH; Phillip Aufreiter, Primetals Technologies Austrai GmbH

Reliable high end automation and process optimization systems are main factors for excellent product quality, safe operation and maximized plant performance in the steel industry and its designated environmental plants. Primetals Technologies introduces new automation packages for consequent safe and cost efficient production. Many areas within the steelplant interested to be monitored and measured automatically are not implemented in the automation system due to limited access or technical reasons. A wireless, self-organizing network facilitates wide ranging data transmission in previously inaccessible areas and opens up a wide range of new opportunities. With Fluid Guard a system to detect leakages with highest accuracy and reacts properly for all kind of water cooled circuits is available, improving the safety in steelmaking process. Environmental plants have become a main part in steelmaking plants. Highest performance in combination with optimized energy consumption is the main target in Primetals Technologies’ innovations in automation optimization packages for dedusting systems. For primary-dry type dedusting systems energy savings up to 60% could be reached with Precon, an energy optimization system. With optimization packages for bag filter systems, operational costs were reduced and at the same time the life time of the filter is increased. A new approach for preventive maintenance and operator assistance is introduced with the Acoustic Expert System. It enables a wide field of application for process observation by acoustic monitoring of the specific noise of various equipment.

Latest Trends in EAF Optimization of Scrap-Based Melting Process: Balancing Chemical and Electrical Energy Input for Competitive and Sustainable Steelmaking (Confirmed)


Damiano Patrizio, Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.P.A.; Alberto Pesamosca, Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.P.A.

The present work analyzes the latest results achieved in scrap based EAFs in terms of application of chemical energy, starting from the observation that the general trend is a reduction of oxygen utilization. Consequently a review is needed about criteria for evaluation of melting process efficiency and equipment design. If from one side the maximization of productivity remains one of the major goals, from the other side some aspects of present market situation, included price of raw materials, are requiring the maximization of process yield. Based on achieved performance figures of selected plants and theoretical considerations, the effect of chemical energy input intensity is analyzed focusing on transformation cost, productivity and total energy input. The effect of present practices with lower oxygen utilization is considered also in terms of global CO2 emissions. Finally, the latest Danieli concepts and technological tools for optimization of chemical input are presented.

Session: BF Modeling

Chairs: Michael Alter - ArcelorMittal Corporate CTO team, Tom Colander - Magneco/Metrel, Inc.

Influence of Slag Properties on the Alkali Cycle of a Blast Furnace (Confirmed)


Anton Pichler, Montanuniversitaet Leoben; Johannes Schenk, Montanuniversitaet Leoben; Franz Hauzenberger, Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH; Hugo Stocker, Vometals Technologies Austria GmbH; Christoph Thaler, Voestalpine Stahl GmbH

Slag properties like temperature and basicity are general known as influencing parameters for the evaporation of potassium and sodium in the blast furnace hearth. Due to their harmful effect on refractories, coke, burden material and top gas, the operator wants to decrease the generation of gaseous alkali compounds by the slag phase. To predict the influence of temperature and slag composition on the alkali mass flows, a thermochemical model was developed. This multi-zone model enables a determination of the alkali concentration over the blast furnace height and gives an understanding of the most effective parameters on the alkali-cycle.

Simulation of Hot Metal Temperature Variation During Tapping of Blast Furnace (Confirmed)


Hemant Upadhyay, Jindal Steel & Power Ltd; Tarun Kr. Kundu, Indian Institute of Technology

Iron and steel making involve capital and energy intensive processes. Efforts have been continu-ously made for process optimization to improve pro¬ductivity, energy efficiency, environment and quality. The control of the hot metal temperature is of great importance in order to optimize the fuel consumption in BF process and make it energy efficient. The temperature of the liquids in the hearth varies with the other process variables and is not fixed, it greatly changes with the time and production / drain rates along with changes in blowing parameters and fuel supply. In general, hot metal temperature measurement obtained at the beginning of tapping tends to be lower than the successive measurement. It is an important parameter to be monitored in the BF operation; it should be kept around a certain level to obtain desired product quality and a stable BF performance. To predict the hot metal temperature variation during tapping process is extremely useful since it gives a clear picture to operator about the tapping operation and prevents any panic. At the same time it allows the correction of process parameters in case of any major deviation. The phenomenon when a BF is cooling or heating can be quickly observed by comparing the calculated temperature variation trend with the actual one and corrective actions can be taken well in advance. Hence in order to obtain desired hot metal temperature with optimum heat input and heat loss and to tune the other parameters accordingly it is required to have a clear understanding of temperature distribution across the liquid pool in the hearth and variation in tapping temperatures. In this study a mathematical model is prepared based on the heat transfer between metal and slag, metal and solids, slag and solids as well as among the various zones of metal and slag itself. The effects of heat supply from dripping zone and heat loss to the cooling system has been duly considered and the temperature counters are prepared to finally obtain a trend of temperature variation of metal and slag during the tapping.

Verification and Review of Rist-Diagram for the Practical Heat- and Mass-Balance Calculation in a Modern Blast Furnace (Confirmed)


Youjong Kwon, POSCO Engineering & Construction; Jung-Seo Park, POSCO Engineering & Construction

This article is for the verification and review of Rist-diagram for the practical heat- & mass-balance calculation in blast-furnace (BF). Rist diagram is developed several decades ago and used to be powerful tools to understand BF operation. However, the calculation results cannot be easily applied in BF engineering, since the calculation has some extent of uncertainty by changed BF-operation during several decades. By this reason, this article reviews the assumptions in calculation, compares the calculation results with various operation data from BF, and clarifies the uncertainty. The review and comparison items are shown as follows; - The assumptions of Rist-diagram (to be reviewed) (heat-loss, mass-loss etc.) - The calculated results from Rist diagram (to be compared) (coke-ratio, blast-volume) - The application of heat- & mass balance (to be compared and reviewed) (BF-gas amount, surface moisture of raw-material) The review result might be used for the improvement of Rist diagram, and practical heat- & mass-balance calculation in modern blast furnace.

Session: BF Equipment

Chairs: Hugh Crosmun - Carmeuse Lime & Stone, Inc., Ray Young - AK Steel Corporation - Middletown Works

Blast Furnace Cooling Stave Design (Confirmed)


Paul Balmer, Primetals Technologies Limited; Jeremy Fletcher, Primetals Technologies Limited; Martin Smith, Primetals Technologies Limited; Richard Harvey, Primetals Technologies Limited; Robert Horwood, Primetals Technologies Limited

Critical to any blast furnace campaign is the quality of the cooling system design. Over the many years of blast furnace history, cooling systems have evolved and changed to give an optimum design that provides long campaign life balanced against cost. In recent years, the latest evolution of the cooling system design, in the shape of the copper stave, has been seen as state-of-the-art and an established feature on a large number of furnaces around the world. When first put forward, the copper stave was marketed as the ultimate cooling element since it not only provided a cooling function but also self-protected by forming an accretion layer. More recently, on some furnaces that have copper staves in their design, significant problems have arisen during operation, causing premature failure of the staves and reduced campaign life. This paper will review the evolution of the copper stave design and illustrate the latest techniques being applied by Primetals in this critical area of blast furnace design.

The Use of Electrical Technologies in Blast Furnace Ironmaking (Confirmed)


Ian Cameron, Hatch Ltd.; Manuel Huerta, Hatch Associates Consultants, Inc; Alexander Gorodetsky, Alter NRG Corp.,; Nishit Patel, Hatch Ltd.; Mitren Sukhram, Hatch Ltd.

In the 1980s, extensive development work was completed regarding the use of plasma torches in blast furnace ironmaking. Developers planned to use electricity to reduce coke consumption and inject coal into the blast furnace without oxygen enrichment. Plasma technologies were not implemented in-part due to plasma torch reliability. Westinghouse has since improved torch reliability with industrial experience in solid waste to energy facilities. Hatch assessed the merits of two blast furnace scenarios; hot blast superheating and plasma tuyere injection with coal. The coke rate savings, coal and oxygen consumptions, carbon footprint and electrical purchase requirements for each scenario will be presented.

Session: EAF Raw Materials & DRI
(Electric Steelmaking)

Chairs: Harriet Dutka - Magnesita Refractories, Lauren Jellison - Nucor Steel-Indiana, Francesco Memoli - Tenova Core

Carbon Transfer During Melting of Direct-Reduced Iron (Confirmed)


Yinig He, Carnegie Mellon University; P. Chris Pistorius, Carnegie Mellon University

Carbon is a desirable element in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, especially if the carbon can be dissolved in the steel melt. Subsequent oxidation of the carbon produces carbon monoxide gas, which foams the slag (increasing energy efficiency) and which strips dissolved nitrogen from the steel. Direct-reduced iron (DRI) can contain several mass percent of carbon. In this study, laboratary-produced DRI pellets, with different carbon contents, were produced by gaseous reduction and carburizing. The DRI pellets were then injected to a laboratory slag-steel melt. During DRI injection, Infrared radiation gas analysis was used to monitor CO content in the off gas, and then the percentage of carbon in DRI transferred to the steel melt can be analyzed. Also, automated SEM/EDX was used for the steel sample to examine the carbon content of the steel melt. It was found that carbon transfer to the steel melt can be achieved despite the presence of an oxidizing (FeO-containing) slag,and DRI injection might be an effective approach to reducing the nitrogen content of EAF steel.

Slag Modeling for Optimizing the Use of Fluxes on a DRI-Based Steelmaking Operation (Confirmed)


Francisco López, Magnesita; Alcides Farrando, Magnesita; Luis Maria López, ARCELOR Mittal; Luis Picco, ARCELOR Mittal; Mark Loeffelholz, Magnesita

The use of DRI as metallic charge in any EAF entails countless challenges for steelmakers, being one of them to avoid or minimize refractory wear caused by the oxides contained in the gangue. The best way to address it is predicting through a mass balance model the evolution of slag composition as the heat is processed, in order to define the right amount of MgO & CaO to be fed and the proper opportunity for doing it. The ultimate goal is having a slag compatible with the EAF refractories and the best foaming properties at the lowest cost as possible.

Session: Inclusions - Modelling Studies
(Ladle and Secondary Refining)

Chairs: Mike Callahan - Nucor Steel Gallatin, Helmut Oltmann - Nucor Steel-Berkeley, Anna Voss - Nucor Steel-Decatur LLC

Numerical Model for the Nucleation and Growth of Deoxidation Inclusions (Confirmed)


Jonathan Spring, McGill University; Manas Paliwal, McGill University; In-Ho Jung, McGill University

Proper control over the inclusion population size distribution is crucial for the production of clean steel. A model for the nucleation and growth of deoxidation inclusions, based on the Kampmann-Wagner model, is presented. The model includes diffusion and collision growth mechanisms. The model considers all solutes and alloying elements involved in the reaction(s), making it applicable to a wide range of situations. Initial results with alumina show a good fit to industrial sampling data. A study on the effect of different aluminum deoxidation methods (supersaturation, time between aluminum additions, type of aluminum addition) will be performed using the model.

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Non-Metallic Inclusions on High-Silicon Dual-Phase Steels Production (Confirmed)


Júlia Beltrami, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul; Wagner Viana Bielefeldt, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul; Antonio Cezar Faria Vilela, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul

The paper evaluates the formation, slag interaction and solidification of inclusions during the processing of dual-phase steels with silicon content >1%wt. The thermodynamic calculations were performed by the software FactSage 6.4. The results show that the initial composition of inclusion depends most importantly on the %Mn/%Si ratio and the aluminium content of steel. When interacting with the slag, the tendency of the inclusions composition is to equal the slag composition over time. During solidification most of the inclusions presented deformable and low fusion temperature phases, except for two specific cases, which formed tridymite, corundum and gehlenite.

Understanding Transient Composition of Inclusions in Ladle Furnace: Modeling Approach (Confirmed)


Deepoo Kumar, Carnegie Mellon University; P. Chris Pistorius, Carnegie Mellon University

The work aims to understand the kinetics of inclusion composition changes during ladle refining using kinetic models. A FactSage based model was developed to predict transient composition of inclusions. The model was applied to predict transient inclusion composition after aluminum deoxidation in a setup simulating a ladle furnace. Induction furnace experiments were conducted to find model parameters related to steel-slag reaction, inclusion flotation and MgO-crucible dissolution. Future work is expected to help in developing a better understanding of modification of solid alumina inclusions into liquid calcium aluminate inclusions, through steel-slag-inclusion reactions.

Session: Mold Powders
(Continuous Casting)

Chairs: Eric Rosenow - Nalco, An Ecolab Company, Darrell Sturgill - Imerys Metalcasting Solutions, Steve Thomas - Nucor Steel Gallatin

A Study on the Isothermal Crystallization and Devitrification of Mold Powder Slags (Confirmed)


Alfonso Castillejos E., CINVESTAV; Tania Flores, CINVESTAV

The kinetics of formation of crystalline phases from mold powder slags is of foremost importance in the performance of steel continuous casting molds. This study employs high temperature confocal microscopy and semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis to demonstrate that non-isothermal data from thermo-analytical (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC) peaks, generated at various linear heating and cooling rates, can be interpreted through a novel kinetic model for estimating the isothermal transformation of liquid and glassy slags. The combined DSC - kinetic model approach leads to time-temperature-transformation, TTT, diagrams showing curves for the degree of conversion of each of the species corresponding to the peaks appearing in the thermo-analysis traces. The procedure shows good accuracy and describes the crystallization in more detail than others methods used for evaluating TTT diagrams.

Analysis of the Nail Board Measurement of Liquid Slag-Layer Depth (Confirmed)


Adnan Akhtar, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Joydeep Sengupta, ArcelorMittal Dofasco Inc.

The nail board test used in the continuous casting process is an inexpensive technique to measure the liquid flux layer thickness beneath the sintering powder layer. A transient thermo-fluid model of nail dipping was developed in ANSYS Fluent and validated using experimental data from a steel nail board test. The model was then run for an Aluminum nail to predict the difference between the expected and actual liquid flux layer thickness. The effect of process conditions and slag properties on the ideal dipping time was investigated.

Effect of CaO/SiO2 and B2O3 on Thermal Conductivity and Structure of Mold Flux for High-Carbon Steel (Confirmed)


Sewoong Park, Yonsei University; Il Sohn, Yonsei University

Heat transfer in steelmaking process is the most important to control the final product quality. Uncontrolled heat transfer leads to thermal stresses during cooling process, subsequently producing stress fields and cracks. The research of thermal conductivity of mold flux can improve the surface quality during initial solidification. The effect of CaO/SiO2 and B2O3 on the thermal conductivity of the mold flux for high carbon steel has been measured using the hot wire method to investigate the relationship between the thermal conductivity and structure. Thermal conductivities of the molten oxides decrease with higher temperature. The network structure of molten mold flux was analyzed using FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The optimal condition for high carbon steelmaking process could be reached from a combination of thermal conductivity data and structural analysis result. This study can enhance the efficiency of heat transfer and it leads to increase of production rate in actual process.

Session: Equipment Evaluation, Maintenance & Reliability
(Hot Sheet Rolling)

Chairs: Robert Brunelli - TMEIC Corporation, Mark Nicholls - ArcelorMittal Dofasco Inc., Jim Sidow - Fuchs Lubricants Co.

Application of Oil-Air Lubrication System to JFE Chiba No. 3 Hot Strip Mill (Confirmed)


Dan Kamijima, JFE Steel Corporation; Toshio Imazeki, JFE Steel Corporation; Yuki Hagio, JFE Steel Corporation; Kazuya Seo, JFE Steel Corporation

JFE steel Chiba No.3 HSM started its operation in 1995, and the mill has some features such as Endless-rolling and Direct hot charge rolling. Run-out-table adopted the Oil-Air lubrication system and that is running with no trouble and no roll exchange since its start up in twenty years ago. Finishing mill Feed-roll was flequently troubled with bearing . As a countermeasure , Its lubricaion system has improved from grease to Oil-Air. As a result , it’s running with no trouble.Oil-Air lubrication is very effective in maintenance of HSM.

Maximizing Impact Force for Descale Headers Using CFD (Confirmed)


Lesli Peterson, Spraying Systems Co.

Descale nozzles and headers need to be sized to maximize the impact performance of the nozzles. Impact testing along with CFD analysis can help to determine if a header has been properly designed to provide maximum impact force. CFD analysis can determine the turbulence level in the header and impact measurements can be taken to determine the effects of turbulence on the spray pattern. Comparing the results with an ideal condition can help to optimize descale header design.

Reliability Engineered Rolling Mill Drivelines for Maximum Performance (Confirmed)


Jim Fraser, Voith Turbo, Inc.; Bobby Scott, Nucor-Yamato Steel Company; Rod Brousseau, Nucor Steel Tuscaloosa Inc.; Mark Alligood, Nucor Steel Hertford County

With industry-wide focus on creating global market competitive advantages, mill owners are constantly seeking high technology innovations to achieve maximized mill performance. One directly related critical mill operating condition is mechanical driveline reliability. This paper explains and describes innovative driveline technologies including case study details of application results and benefits.

Session: Pickling
(Cold Sheet Rolling)

Chairs: Shawn Duffy - Spraying Systems Company, David Price - ArcelorMittal USA Research Laboratories, Mark Zipf - Cold Rolling Technologies Inc

Composite Technologies for Corrosive Fluid Processing Applications (Confirmed)


Colleen Reeves, Andronaco Industries

This presentation will discuss and compare various piping system composite technologies available for use in corrosive fluid processing applications such as pickle lines. We will review raw material and component design characteristics, composite manufacturing processes that impact durability and strength, application utilization, selection criteria, as well as safety and reliability aspects of composites. This course will benefit those involved in the design, engineering, operation, and maintenance of corrosive chemical fluid processing systems.

iBox Pickling Tank for Production Improvement of Advanced High-Strength Steel Upgraded From Deep Bath Tank (Confirmed)


Kosei Tsuji, Primetals Technologies Japan, Ltd.; Jumpei Sato, Primetals Technologies Japan, Ltd.; Hiroshi Watanabe, Primetals Technologies Japan, Ltd.; Masao Tambara, Primetals Technologies Japan, Ltd.

For demands of production increasing of advanced high strength steel (hereinafter AHSS), steel manufacturers face short production capacity of pickling line. Primetals Technologies Japan, Ltd (herein after PTJ) have proposed i Box pickling tank to improve production capacity, which is most advanced, maintenance easy and saving energy. Since i Box pickling tank need storage tanks of acid solution to reduce over pickling at line stop, wider space for them is required. the storage tanks need wider space. To reduce the necessary space, PTJ propose new and unique designed configuration system of i Box pickling tank to revamp from Deep bath tank.

New Pickling Line With 5-Stand and 6-High Tandem Cold Mill For Yieh Phui, China for High-Strength Steels and Automotive Applications (Confirmed)


Michele Turchetto, Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.P.A.

In January 2013 Danieli signed a contract with Yieh Phui China for the supply and installation of a new complete Pickling Line and Tandem Cold Mill that was installed in the existing facility of Changshu (Jiangshu Province, China), which is a fully-owned subsidiary of the Taiwanese group E-United. The new PLTCM is one step of a strategic capacity expansion project of approximately 1.1 million tons per year of the Changshu operation facilities. The expansion is needed to produce high-quality sheets including inner and outer panels for the Chinese automotive market. On Feb 15th, 2015 thanks to the fruitful cooperation between the teams of Yieh Phui and Danieli, the first coil was produced only two months after the completion of the erection works. The success of this project was a significant milestone for Danieli in China, allowing it to extend its business of strip processing lines to the world market.

Session: Latest Advancements in Plate Rolling
(Plate Rolling)

Chairs: Tom Bovalina - Tenova Core, Corey Ivey - Nucor Steel Hertford County, Blane Vines - Nucor Steel Tuscaloosa, Inc.

Advanced Strategies for Plate Production Shown Through Example of a 5-m Heavy Plate Mill (Confirmed)


Wolfgang Spies, SMS group GmbH; Ingo Schuster, SMS Group GmbH; Jürgen Lemke, SMS Group GmbH; Ralf Mackenbach, SMS Group GmbH; Thomas Koch, SMS group GmbH; Niyaz Kazakbaev, SMS Group GmbH; Slava Ilinsky, SMS Group GmbH

The ongoing development especially of high-strength steel grades, like pipe grades and fine grain structural steels is driven by the minimization of weight or the reduction of production costs. Therefore modern plate production is facing the challenge to set the desired product quality in terms of mechanical properties. Here the automation systems become a more and more important tool to fulfil these demands. The development of the last years leads to flexible automation systems with physical based process models for the different production steps. This has to be ensured for the entire range of plate dimensions and grades. The integrated design of the entire automation system in combination with the mechanical installations, the modern control system and physical based process models make it possible for the mill manager to set the desired product quality in terms of mechanical properties and production rates. This is also possible with a high consistency and reproducibility of the mechanical properties. Through the example of the 5 m heavy plate mill of OMK in Vyksa, Russia the different applications will be shown to fulfil the objectives of a modern plate production focused on quality and production rate. Hereby the total integrated use of L3 production planning for the mill area with parallel roller tables, L2 pass schedule calculation and the use of advanced models for material properties show the advantages of modern online control of highly sophisticated production processes in plate mills and the possibilities for productivity improvement and the development of new steel grades for future purposes.

Influence of Delivery Side Roll Position of Roller Leveler to Plate Flatness (Confirmed)


Tsuyoshi Higo, Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation; Hiromi Matsumoto, The University of Kitakyushu; Shigeru Ogawa, Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation

Flatness is one of the most important qualities of plates. Plate flatness is achieved through the roller leveling process. The roller leveling process, however, still highly relies on experts’ skill. Though many articles have examined the effect of the roll position at the entry side of the roller leveler, how to set the roll position at the delivery side has not been clarified yet. This paper investigates the influence of the delivery side roll position to plate flatness through the theoretical analysis, and discuss a reason why multi-pass leveling is needed when the entry side roll plunge becomes tighter.

Session: Wire Rod Mill
(Rod and Bar Rolling)

Chairs: Katelyn Scheck - ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbor, Larry Smith - SMS Technical Services LLC, Vanja Ubovic - Charter Steel - Saukville, Wisconsin

Design and Improvement of 0.82 %C Steel Wire Rod Quality for PC Strand Applications (Confirmed)


Erhan Sakalli, Erdemir; Serdar GÜNBAY, Isdemir; Ahmet ÇELİKEL, Isdemir; Hamdi GÜL, Isdemir; Oktay Elkoca, Erdemir

In this study, the design and improvement of 0,82 %C steel wire rod for pre-stress concrete wire applications that are all covered by imports in Turkey have been done. During the design and experimental studies, JMatPro and Gleeble 3500 thermal simulators are used to describe the CCT and TTT curves and for simulating stelmor line parameters. Besides optic microscope , SEM, SEM-EDS are used to measure the interlamellar spacing and line analysis for segregation. Finally, the optimum conditions to produce this wire rod quality are determined and this wire rod grade can be produced in Turkey.

Session: Steelmaking Metallurgy
(Metallurgy - Steelmaking and Casting)

Chairs: Rodrigo Corbari - Vallourec Star, Roger Maddalena - Vesuvius USA, Scott Story - U. S. Steel Research and Technology Center

Development of a Slab Intermix Model for Casting Dissimilar Steel Grades at SSAB Mobile (Confirmed)


Yufeng Wang, SSAB Americas; Sunday Abraham, SSAB Americas; Rick Bodnar, SSAB Americas; Stephen Richardson, SSAB Mobile; Chase Rawlinson, SSAB Mobile; Samuel Wilder, SSAB Mobile; Jason Thomas, SSAB Mobile

It is a common practice in the steel industry to cast as many heats as possible in a casting sequence to maximize productivity. However, in some cases, steel grades with vastly dissimilar chemical compositions may create intermix or transition slabs which are not suitable for application to either of the grades being intermixed. This paper describes a mathematical model, developed at SSAB for its Mobile, Alabama plant, to identify intermixable grades to maximize sequence length and optimize casting conditions to ensure that transition slabs are applicable to the grades being intermixed. The model comprises two sub-modules, viz., a tundish mixing module and a mold mixing module. The model has been verified and implemented for on-line use during casting.